Project description

The large spread of electric vehicles towards a mass market is essential to reduce pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. However, the production of vehicle batteries is very energy consuming. So that the advantage of electro mobility in terms of CO2 emissions only become noticeable through a long service life of the batteries and correspondingly higher cumulative driven kilometers by the vehicle.

Due to the aging of the lithium-ion batteries in use, the range and the performance of e-vehicles decrease over their service life. However, a necessary replacement of the battery in the vehicle does not have to mean the end of the operation of battery. It can be further used in another application and still provide sufficient capacity with less power. As a result of a longer battery life the CO2 balance improves.

In order to open up the mass market for electric vehicles, it is crucial not only to offer charging opportunities in the garages of single-family houses, but also to include the masses in apartment houses. The project addresses this segment and demonstrates the solutions developed in a newly built district with single-family and apartment houses in Weinsberg. In addition to the primary task of intelligent recharging of electric vehicles, the charging infrastructure in the underground car parks should also offer flexibility grade to the energy management of entire building, like optimization of self-consumption rate for integrated PV plant.

Furthermore, for the demonstration site a car-sharing fleet with electric vehicles is planned either in the underground car parks or in the associated outdoor parking slots. The field tests are intended to determine to what extent operator and business models can be carried out with local building associated car sharing fleets. Since these vehicles are not privately owned, the batteries can be used as for the local load management, as for energy recovery into the building’s power grid more easily.

Central for the implementation and widespread use of the developed system solutions is the analysis of safety and reliability, as well as the certification of charging stations with aged vehicle batteries as buffer storage in underground garages. In this connection it is important to take into account as well as aging with its impact on the key safety factors, reliability and performance, as to determine the remaining service life to make the solutions technically and economically meaningful.

Project structure and the main issues

Characterization, analysis and model based determination of RUL (remaining useful life) for aged car batteries used in building-integrated charging stations

  • How will be determined the condition of the vehicle batteries aged in the 1st use during the incoming components inspection?
  • How can we speed up this incoming inspection?
  • What conditions were the batteries in the vehicle exposed to?
  • How much did the batteries aged during the 1st use?
  • Which operating conditions will the batteries exposed to in the 2nd use?
  • How do the cells age under new operating conditions?
  • Which operating conditions are preferred in the 2nd use for safety and aging reasons?
  • Which forecasting methods are suitable for the aging and RUL predictions?
  • Will the monitoring results confirm the predictions at the end of the project?

Potential analysis for multiple uses of buffer storage and e-vehicle batteries in apartment buildings with a high share of self-generated electricity

  • By what percentage can the self-consumption share and the degree of coverage be increased by using different storage capacities?
  • How will car sharing electric vehicles be used in an apartment building? Is integration into the public possible?
  • Is the feedback of stored energy from vehicle batteries meaningful? Which legal and technical requirements have to be considered?
  • How do different starting concepts and energy management strategies change the overall system?

Investigation of the business models for charging infrastructure in apartment buildings and local car sharing concepts

  • How do the different components (generators, energy storage and charging infrastructure) interact? What are the impacts of different operator models?
  • Which operator models have a high level of social acceptance?
  • What can a billing model for private vehicles as well as for vehicles from a car sharing fleet look like?
  • Which price models for car sharing use are attractive for the user and the operator?

Development of charging stations with integrated 2nd use battery storage for underground garages

  • Will the integration of used batteries in charging and power storage systems for charging electric vehicles and grid buffering be possible?
  • Will the combination of charging station with battery prevent peak loads?
  • Is regenerative energy more extensively usable for evening and night charging processes?
  • Is it also possible to utilize the energy of car battery in the building?
  • What needs to be considered when implementing and installing in apartment buildings?
  • How can personal and property protection be guaranteed?

Load management

  • What does the architecture of the energy management system look like?
  • Which energy management hardware will be able to control the integrated devices and operate their communication interfaces?
  • How is the integration of application services and user interfaces implemented in software?
  • How are the algorithms of energy management implemented in the control system?
  • How are the safety aspects dealt with in regular and non-regular operation?
  • Which security measures assure the secure communication?

Safety, reliability and certification of charging stations with integrated battery storage in underground parking garages of apartment buildings

  • What fire protection requirements result from the application of 2nd use batteries as energy storage?
  • What are the possible installation locations for battery storage inside buildings and what are the advantages and disadvantages of them?
  • Which criteria are necessary to assess the safety and reliability of aged vehicle batteries?

Demonstrator "Weinsberg"

  • Setting, commissioning and operation of energy generators, energy consumers and energy storages
  • Construction of the car sharing pavilion and the adjacent battery room
  • Demonstration, testing and monitoring of the charging stations with integrated 2nd use batteries
  • Demonstration and trial of local car sharing concepts with electric vehicles
  • Evaluation of the overall concept under economic and technical criteria
  • To what extend fot he results oft he demonstration phase coincide with the model and simulation forecasts?

Progress & Events